Baku strecke

baku strecke

Juni Auf dem Stadtkurs von Baku fahren die FormelPiloten so schnell wie nirgends sonst. Der verwinkelte Stadtkurs birgt zudem Gefahren. Koordinaten: 40° 22′ 22,2″ N, 49° 51′ 13,1″ O. Der Baku City Im Oktober wurde die Streckenführung vorgestellt, die Strecke ist 6, km lang und besteht aus acht Rechts- und zwölf Linkskurven. Die meisten. Apr. Ex-FIA-Mann Marcin Budkowski arbeitet in Baku zum ersten Mal in der Renault- Box. Nico Hülkenberg und Carlos Sainz kämpfen mit den. Die engste Stelle im ganzen F1-Kalender. Kein anderer Stadtkurs weist auch nur annähernd solche Geschwindigkeiten auf. Zwei Jahre später dreht casino mondial düsseldorf Formel 1 auch in Tipico chat ihre Premierenrunden. Bitte überprüfen Sie Ihre Eingaben. JavaScript scheint in Ihrem Browser deaktiviert zu sein. Am ersten Trainingstag auf dem anspruchsvollen Stadtkurs wurden die neuen Teile sowie die Balance des R. Zwar fuhr er am Freitag die drittbeste Zeit und lag damit zwei Ränge connor mcgregor Hamilton, doch auch er blieb keinesfalls fehlerfrei.

Baku Strecke Video

F1 2016 Baku Daniel Ricciardo Hot Lap + Meine Meinung zur Strecke!

Ich habe "einschlägig" herumgefragt, vernünftige Antworten bekommt man nicht, aber man kann es sich zusammenreimen: Das türkische Netz hinkt hinterher.

Die Langstreckenverbindung hängt an der Unterquerung des Bosporus. Da sind die Tunnelbauten seit fertig, nicht aber die Zufahrten. Auch die innertürkischen Züge gehen bis Pendik asiatische Seite , und dann geht es mit "Ersatzverkehr" nach Halkali auf die europäische Seite.

Auch bei den Russen wird man vielleicht irgendwann fündig: The passenger train Ankara - Kars - Tbilisi - Baku should start at the end of , according to voices and some turkish site.

The travel should take 38 hrs. The train will provide sleeping cars 1 luxury, 1 confort, 7 standards and a restaurant car.

Any update when and if this railway line will be available for passengers? Is it going to make the long overnight journey between Tbilisi and Baku shorter?

It's unclear when the actual passenger train will be running that route. Certainly not in The Kars - Tbilisi route is still unavailable as of Sept 4 I confirmed with the train ticket office at Kars.

There could be starting a passenger service in We know though how timelines usually slide in this project:. All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips.

Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers. Log in Join Recently viewed Bookings Inbox. Kars - Tbilisi - Baku train connection?

Browse forums All Browse by destination. During winter the khazri sweeps through, driven by polar air masses ; temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and make it feel bitterly cold.

Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall. Today, Baku is divided into 12 rayonlar sub-rayons administrative districts and 5 settlements of city type.

Until Baku had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook to Baku's history.

With the onset of the Karabakh War and the pogrom against Armenians starting in January , the city's large Armenian population was expelled.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev returned several synagogues and a Jewish college, nationalized by the Soviets, to the Jewish community.

He encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original 11 synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in , and the large Kruei Synagogue.

When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of —13 , nearly the entire population of some 8, people was ethnic Tat. The population increased again from about 13, in the s to , in and , in , making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region.

Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population.

The urban landscape of Baku is shaped by many communities. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims , and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran.

There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution , Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Zoroastrianism , although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan and the Zoroastrian New Year Nowruz continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan.

Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to Azerbaijan's balance of payments.

The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku.

Commercial exploitation began in , and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world.

Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore.

By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By the city had more than 3, oil wells, of which 2, were producing oil at industrial levels.

Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply.

The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange , and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization.

A relatively large number of transnational companies are headquartered in Baku. One of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku is the International Bank of Azerbaijan , which employs over 1, people.

Baku is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caucasus, with hotels in the city earning 7 million euros in Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag , an ever-blazing spot of natural gas.

On 2 September , with the inauguration of National Flag Square , Baku became home to the world's tallest flagpole , according to the Guinness Book of Records.

The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques. The city is listed 48th in the list of the most expensive cities in the world conducted by the Mercer Human Resource Consulting.

The city has many amenities that offer a wide range of cultural activities, drawing both from a rich local dramatic portfolio and an international repertoire.

It also boasts many museums such as Baku Museum of Modern Art and Azerbaijan State Museum of History , most notably featuring historical artifacts and art.

Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in when Baku was designated an Islamic Culture Capital. In the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center was opened.

The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. As of [update] , the city along with Ganja and Lankaran participates in Earth Hour movement.

National Museum of History. Nizami Museum of Literature. Baku Museum of Modern Art. Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port.

Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built during the early 20th century, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style.

The Hamam tradition in Baku is interesting. There are a number of ancient hamams in Baku dating back to the 12th, 14th and 18th centuries.

Hamams play a very important role in the architectural appearance of Baku. Teze Bey is the most popular hamam traditional bath in Baku.

It was built in in the center of Baku and in it was fully restored and modernized. Along with its modern amenities, Teze Bey features a swimming pool and architectural details inspired by Oriental, Russian and Finnish baths.

Gum Hamam was discovered during archaeological excavations underneath the sand; hence the name: Gum hamam sand bath. It was built sometime during the 12th—14th centuries.

The original structure was built sometime during the 12th—14th centuries and was reconstructed in It is still operating in its ancient setting.

The Hamam is open to women on Mondays and Fridays and to men on the other days of the week. Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the early s.

With economic development, old buildings such as Atlant House were razed to make way for new ones. These projects also caught the attention of international media as notable programmes such as Discovery Channel 's Extreme Engineering did pieces focusing in on changes to the city.

Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in , survived. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: The old town core also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them as such.

The music scene in Baku can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan.

In recent years, the success of Azerbaijani performers such as AySel , Farid Mammadov , Sabina Babayeva , Safura and Elnur Hüseynov in the Eurovision Song Contest has significantly boosted the profile of Baku's music scene, prompting international attention.

Baku also has a thriving International Center of Mugham , which is located in Baku Boulevard , Gulustan Palace and Buta Palace , one of the principal performing arts centers and music venues in the city.

Baku is also featured in the video game Battlefield 4. Baku boasts a vibrant nightlife. Many clubs that are open until dawn can be found throughout the city.

Clubs with an eastern flavor provide special treats from the cuisine of Azerbaijan along with local music. Western-style clubs target younger, more energetic crowds.

Baku is home to restaurants catering to every cuisine and occasion. Restaurants range from luxurious and expensive to ordinary and affordable.

In the Lonely Planet " Ultimate Experiences", Baku placed 8th among the top 10 party cities in the world. Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones.

The city, however, continues to lack a green belt development as economic activity pours into the capital, resulting in massive housing projects along the suburbs.

Baku Boulevard is a pedestrian promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. The boulevard contains an amusement park, yacht club , musical fountain , statues and monuments.

The park is popular with dog-walkers and joggers, and is convenient for tourists. It is adjacent to the newly built International Center of Mugham and the musical fountain.

The Martyrs' Lane , formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh War and also to the people killed on Black January.

The first was the European Grand Prix. Since , Baku has hosted 36 major sporting events and selected to host the European Games.

Baku is also one of world's leading chess centres, having produced famous grandmasters like Teimour Radjabov , Vugar Gashimov , Garry Kasparov , Shahriyar Mammadyarov and Rauf Mammadov , as well as the arbiter Faik Hasanov.

Baku made a bid to host the Summer Olympics and Summer Olympics , [99] but failed to become a Candidate City both times. The largest sport hub in the city is Baku Olympic Stadium with 68, seating capacity whose construction was completed in The city's second largest stadium, Tofiq Bahramov Stadium hosts a number of domestic and international competitions and was the main sport centre of the city for a long period until the construction of Baku Olympic Stadium.

Throughout history the transport system of Baku used the now-defunct horsecars , trams and narrow gauge railways. As of [update] , 1, black cabs are ordered by Baku Taxi Company, and as part of a programme originally announced by the Transport Ministry of Azerbaijan, there is a plan to introduce London cabs into Baku.

Local rail transport includes the Baku Funicular and the Baku Metro , a rapid-transit system notable for its art, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers.

Baku Metro was opened in November and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; million people used Baku Metro over the past five years.

These will serve the new bus complex as well as the international airport. BakuCard is a single Smart Card for payment on all types of city transport.

The intercity buses and metro use this type of card-based fare-payment system. Baku's Central Railway Station is the terminus for national and international rail links to the city.

The Kars—Tbilisi—Baku railway , which directly connects Turkey , Georgia and Azerbaijan , began to be constructed in and opened in Sea transport is vital for Baku, as the city is practically surrounded by the Caspian Sea to the east.

Baku Port was founded in and since then has been the largest Caspian Sea port. It has six facilities: The port's throughput capacity reaches 15 million tons of liquid bulk and up to 10 million tons of dry cargoes.

The construction will take place in three stages and will be completed by The motorway network around Baku is well developed and is constantly being extended.

The new Baku Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March It was constructed to be a major cargo hub in the CIS countries and is actually now one of the biggest and most technically advanced in the region.

Baku hosts many universities, junior colleges and vocational schools. Baku State University , the first established university in Azerbaijan was opened in by the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

After when Azerbaijan gained independence from the Soviet Union, the fall of communism led to the development of a number of private institutions, including Qafqaz University and Khazar University which are currently considered the most prestigious academic institutions.

Apart from the private universities, the government established the Academy of Public Administration , the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy and various military academies.

Publicly run kindergartens and elementary schools years 1 through 11 are operated by local wards or municipal offices. The Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences , the main state research organization in Azerbaijan is locating in Baku as well.

Moreover, Baku has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Soviet periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past.

The city has many public and private hospitals, clinics and laboratories within its bounds and numerous medical research centers. Because of its intermittent periods of great prosperity as well as being the largest city in the Caucasus and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Soviet Union, Baku prides itself on having produced a disproportionate number of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields.

Some of the houses they resided in display commemorative plaques. Some of the many prestigious residents include: World-famous cellist Mstislav Rostropovich was born and raised in Baku, as was world-famous chess player, Garry Kasparov.

Zadeh , artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics , fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic. Kerim Kerimov , one of the founders of the Soviet space program.

Garry Kasparov , chess grandmaster , former World Chess Champion. Mikayil Mushfig , Bakuvian poet and victim of the Stalinist purges.

Tofiq Bahramov as a Soviet footballer and football referee from Azerbaijan. Mstislav Rostropovich , Grammy Award -winning cellist.

Baku is twinned with: Partnership relations also exist at different levels with: Old Baku " Icheri Sheher ". Baku Opera and Ballet Theatre.

Fountain and Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall. View of Baku taken from the International Space Station.

Sites on the Tentative List. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Baku disambiguation. History of Baku and Timeline of Baku.

Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan. List of universities in Baku. List of people from Baku. List of twin towns and sister cities in Azerbaijan.

Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 21 November Top 10 cities to party the night away".

Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 23 December Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 14 October Cities of the Middle East and North Africa.

Azerbaijan as a Regional Hub in Central Eurasia: Retrieved 30 June Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: Retrieved 9 March Boundary Politics and International Boundaries of Iran: The Macmillan Company, , p.

Retrieved 1 December Hrair Dekmejian, Hovann H. The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. Journal of Contemporary History.

The results of the March events were immediate and total for the Musavat. A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press, A Modern History of the Islamic World.

Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. Retrieved 22 July Luck 26 February Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 17 November Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 15 July

Vielen Dank für Ihre Mitteilung. Jun Europa GP N. Der GP Russland steht schon erstmals auf dem Kalender. Sport von A bis Z Sport - meist gelesen. Bitte akzeptieren Sie die Datenschutzerklärung. Diese Webseite verwendet Cookies. Im Training setzte der Mexikaner sein Auto in die imposante Stadtmauer. Toro Rosso konnte in China zuletzt nicht überzeugen. Und da man mit dem Reifenkontingent haushalten wollte, musste Sainz das Vormittagstraining vorzeitig beenden. Sport , Motorsport , Formel 1 , Baku , Aserbaidschan. Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed doubledown casino codes in italics. The travel should take 38 hrs. Archived from the original on 2 April Caspian International Realty and Investment Fair 1st edition. The city's ps4 spiel stornieren largest stadium, Tofiq Bahramov Stadium hosts a number of domestic and international competitions and was the main sport centre of the city for Resultatet av prisdragningen fГ¶r iPhone 7 Plus Red - Mobil6000 long period until the construction miami club casino bonus codes 2019 Baku Olympic Stadium. The semi-autonomous Persian-ruled [17] [18] Baku Khanate was one of these. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baku. The Azerbaijanis suffered a crushing defeat by the united forces of Baku Soviet and were massacred by Dashnak teams in what was called March Days. Browse forums All Browse by destination. Journal of Contemporary History. The high-level strategic agenda focuses on all aspects of refining and petrochemical Fri, 12 - Sat, 13 Apr By the early 16th century Baku's wealth and book of ra casino gratis position attracted the focus of its larger neighbors; in the previous two centuries, it was under the rule of the in Iran-centred Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu.

Does anybody have any information about the new train connection between Turkey Kars and Baku via Tbilisi? The line was officially opened on 30 October see for example https: I read somewhere that there should even be direct connections from Ankara to Baku at some stage soon?

However, I have found nothing about this online - no timetables, no prices, only coverage of the opening ceremony.

Does anybody know whether the passenger trains are up and running? If yes, where can I find more information?

To answer my own question: Ich habe "einschlägig" herumgefragt, vernünftige Antworten bekommt man nicht, aber man kann es sich zusammenreimen: Das türkische Netz hinkt hinterher.

Die Langstreckenverbindung hängt an der Unterquerung des Bosporus. Da sind die Tunnelbauten seit fertig, nicht aber die Zufahrten.

Auch die innertürkischen Züge gehen bis Pendik asiatische Seite , und dann geht es mit "Ersatzverkehr" nach Halkali auf die europäische Seite. Auch bei den Russen wird man vielleicht irgendwann fündig: The passenger train Ankara - Kars - Tbilisi - Baku should start at the end of , according to voices and some turkish site.

Fri, 09 - Sat, 10 Nov ongoing. The International Paradontology and Aesthetic Dentistry Congress aims to assist in the development of parodontology and implantology in dentistry, to promote parodontology as a separate field of dentistry Wed, 14 - Fri, 16 Nov 5 days to go.

Interested 48 following 3. Interested following 4. Thu, 15 - Fri, 16 Nov 6 days to go. Top and middle management of regulating authorities in the financial and economic sphere and other.

Interested 59 following 5. Fri, 30 Nov - Sun, 02 Dec Interested 73 following 3. Downstream Caspian and Central Asia.

Interested following 3. Wed, 20 - Thu, 21 Feb Caspian International Realty and Investment Fair 1st edition.

The Caspian International Realty and Investment Fair is the major annual event in the field of real estate attended by local and foreign developers, high qualified key professionals of various real property Caspian Franchise Expo will bring together companies to exhibit their concepts and to offer the creation or development of a franchised business.

Sat, 09 Mar Begin Edu Fair - Baku. The conference is a platform for introducing and demonstrating new product, and meeting and exploring business opportunities with new and existing clients in a booming hospitality market that stretches Interested 27 following 4.

Fri, 12 - Sat, 13 Apr Interested 26 following 5. The fall of the Ak Koyunlu brought the city immediately into the sphere of the newly formed Iranian Safavid dynasty , led by king shah Ismail I r.

Ismail I laid siege to Baku in and captured it; he allowed the Shirvanshahs to remain in power, under Safavid suzerainty.

His successor, king Tahmasp I r. Baku remained as an integral part of his empire and the successive Iranian dynasties to come for the next centuries, until the irrevocable cession in the first half of the 19th century.

The House of Shirvan, who ruled Baku since the 9th century, was extinguished in the course of the Safavid rule.

At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land.

The Ottomans briefly gained control over Baku as a result of the Ottoman-Safavid War of — ; by , it was again put under Iranian control. Baku is noted for being a focal point for traders from all across the world during the Early modern period , commerce was active and the area was prosperous.

Notably, traders from the Indian subcontinent established themselves in the region. These Indian traders built the Ateshgah of Baku during 17th—18th centuries; the temple was used as a Hindu , Sikh , and Parsi place of worship.

In the wake of the demise of the Safavids, the Russians took advantage of the situation and invaded ; the Safavids were forced to cede Baku to Russia for a few years.

The eruption of instability following Nader Shah's death gave rise to the various Caucasian khanates. The semi-autonomous Persian-ruled [17] [18] Baku Khanate was one of these.

During this time, the population of Baku was small approximately 5, , and the economy was ruined as a result of constant warfare. From the late 18th century, Imperial Russia switched to a more aggressive geopolitical stance towards its two neighbors and rivals to the south, namely Iran and the Ottoman Empire.

On 13 June , a Russian flotilla entered Baku Bay, and a garrison of Russian troops was placed inside the city. Later, however, Pavel I ordered the cessation of the campaign and the withdrawal of Russian forces following his predecessor, Catherine the Great 's death.

In March , the tsarist troops left Baku and the city became part of Qajar Iran again. During the next and final bout of hostilities between the two, the Russo-Persian War of — , Baku was briefly recaptured by the Iranians.

However, militarily superior, the Russians ended this war in a victory as well, and the resulting Treaty of Turkmenchay made its inclusion into the Russian Empire definite.

Drilling for oil began in the mids, with the first oil well drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in It was mechanically drilled, though a number of hand-dug wells predate it.

Large-scale oil exploration started in when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors.

The pioneer of oil extracting from the bottom of the sea was Polish geologist Witold Zglenicki. Among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers together with the family von Börtzell-Szuch Carl Knut Börtzell, who also owned the Livadia Palace and the Rothschild family.

An industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. Baku is a city founded upon oil, for to its inexhaustible founts of naphtha it owes its very existence, its maintenance, its prosperity At present Baku produces one-fifth of the oil that is used in the world, and the immense output in crude petroleum from this single city far surpasses that in any other district where oil is found.

Verily, the words of the Scriptures find illustration here: Oil is in the air one breathes, in one's nostrils, in one's eyes, in the water of the morning bath though not in the drinking water, for that is brought in bottles from distant mineral springs , in one's starched linen — everywhere.

This is the impression one carries away from Baku, and it is certainly true in the environs. By the beginning of the 20th century, half of the oil sold in international markets was being extracted in Baku.

Between and Baku's population grew at a faster rate than that of London , Paris or New York. In , after the October revolution and amidst the turmoil of World War I and the breakup of the Russian Empire , Baku came under the control of the Baku Commune , which was led by veteran Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan.

Seeking to capitalize on the existing inter-ethnic conflicts, by spring , Bolsheviks inspired and condoned civil warfare in and around Baku.

During the infamous March Days , Bolsheviks and Dashnaks seeking to establish control over Baku streets, were faced with armed Azerbaijani groups.

The Azerbaijanis suffered a crushing defeat by the united forces of Baku Soviet and were massacred by Dashnak teams in what was called March Days.

An estimated 3—12, Azerbaijanis were killed in their own capital. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha , started their advance onto Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks , Esers , Dashnaks , Mensheviks and British forces under the command of General Lionel Dunsterville on 15 September After the Battle of Baku , the Azerbaijani irregular troops, with the tacit support of the Turkish command, conducted four days of pillaging and killing of 10—30, [28] of the Armenian residents of Baku.

This pogrom was known as the September Days. Shortly after this Baku was proclaimed the new capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.

With Turkey having lost the war by October they conducted the Armistice of Mudros with the British which meant Baku was to be evacuated.

Thomson declared himself military governor of Baku and implemented Martial law on the capital until "the civil power would be strong enough to release the forces from the responsibility to maintain the public order".

British forces left before the end of having felt they had done so. The independence of the Azerbaijani republic was significant but a short-lived chapter.

The city underwent many major changes. As a result, Baku played a great role in many branches of the Soviet life. Together with Baku Party Committee known as the Baksovet , it developed the economic significance of the Caspian metropolis.

From to , Baku was the venue for one of the major Trade fairs of the Soviet Union, serving as a commercial bridgehead to Iran and the Middle East.

Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. In fact, capturing the oil fields of Baku was one of the ultimate goals of Operation Edelweiss , carried out between May and November However, the German Army's closest approach to Baku was no closer than some kilometres miles northwest of Baku in November , falling far short of the city's capture before being driven back during the Soviet Operation Little Saturn in mid-December After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , Baku embarked on a process of restructuring on a scale unseen in its history.

Improvements were made in the general cleaning, maintenance, and garbage collection, and these services are now at Western European standards.

The city is growing dynamically and developing at full speed on an east-west axis along the shores of the Caspian Sea.

Sustainability has become a key factor in future urban development. Baku is situated on the western coast of Caspian Sea. In the vicinity of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others and salt lakes Boyukshor , Khodasan and so on.

Baku has a temperate semi-arid climate Köppen climate classification: BSk with hot and humid summers, cool and occasionally wet winters, and strong winds all year long.

However, unlike many other cities with such climate features, Baku does not see extremely hot summers. This is largely because of its northerly latitude and the fact that it is located on a peninsula on the shore of the Caspian Sea.

The majority of the light annual precipitation occurs in seasons other than summer, but none of these seasons are particularly wet. During Soviet times, Baku with its long hours of sunshine and dry healthy climate, was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea.

The city's past as a Soviet industrial center has left it as one of the most polluted cities in the world. At the same time Baku is noted as a very windy city throughout the year, hence the city's nickname the " City of Winds ", and gale-force winds, the cold northern wind khazri and the warm southern wind gilavar are typical here in all seasons.

Indeed, the city is renowned for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds. The daily mean temperature in July and August averages During summer the khazri sweeps through, bringing desired coolness.

Winter is cool and occasionally wet, with the daily mean temperature in January and February averaging 4. During winter the khazri sweeps through, driven by polar air masses ; temperatures on the coast frequently drop below freezing and make it feel bitterly cold.

Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall. Today, Baku is divided into 12 rayonlar sub-rayons administrative districts and 5 settlements of city type.

Until Baku had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook to Baku's history.

With the onset of the Karabakh War and the pogrom against Armenians starting in January , the city's large Armenian population was expelled.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev returned several synagogues and a Jewish college, nationalized by the Soviets, to the Jewish community.

He encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original 11 synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in , and the large Kruei Synagogue.

When Baku was occupied by the Russian troops during the war of —13 , nearly the entire population of some 8, people was ethnic Tat. The population increased again from about 13, in the s to , in and , in , making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region.

Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population.

The urban landscape of Baku is shaped by many communities. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims , and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran.

There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution , Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom.

Zoroastrianism , although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan and the Zoroastrian New Year Nowruz continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan.

Baku's largest industry is petroleum, and its petroleum exports make it a large contributor to Azerbaijan's balance of payments. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century.

In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku.

Commercial exploitation began in , and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore.

By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By the city had more than 3, oil wells, of which 2, were producing oil at industrial levels.

Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before World War II.

Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply. The Baku Stock Exchange is Azerbaijan's largest stock exchange , and largest in the Caucasian region by market capitalization.

A relatively large number of transnational companies are headquartered in Baku. One of the more prominent institutions headquartered in Baku is the International Bank of Azerbaijan , which employs over 1, people.

Baku is one of the most important tourist destinations in the Caucasus, with hotels in the city earning 7 million euros in Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag , an ever-blazing spot of natural gas.

On 2 September , with the inauguration of National Flag Square , Baku became home to the world's tallest flagpole , according to the Guinness Book of Records.

The retail areas contain shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques. The city is listed 48th in the list of the most expensive cities in the world conducted by the Mercer Human Resource Consulting.

The city has many amenities that offer a wide range of cultural activities, drawing both from a rich local dramatic portfolio and an international repertoire.

It also boasts many museums such as Baku Museum of Modern Art and Azerbaijan State Museum of History , most notably featuring historical artifacts and art.

Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in when Baku was designated an Islamic Culture Capital. In the Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center was opened.

The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. As of [update] , the city along with Ganja and Lankaran participates in Earth Hour movement.

National Museum of History. Nizami Museum of Literature. Baku Museum of Modern Art. Baku has wildly varying architecture, ranging from the Old City core to modern buildings and the spacious layout of Baku port.

Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built during the early 20th century, when architectural elements of the European styles were combined in eclectic style.

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